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of its whereabouts are indicated by its cost in many of the mining camps and by the frequency with which the press records instances of death from thirst in the more remote parts of the desert. MINERAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS. The mineral resources of the region under discussion are being developed with a rapidity that is attracting general attention. The most important of these resources is gold, and the present intense interest in the desert is in large part due to the discovery and development within it of mines that are heavy producers of this metal. The resources of the region, however, are not confined to the precious metals, but comprise a wide range of mineral products of economic value. Among these may be mentioned several valuable salts, including borax, soda, gypsum, and common salt; building material, including marble, onyx, brick clays, and cements; baser metals, like copper, iron, and lead; and gems, among which are turquoise and opal. Just west of the desert proper, in the mountains of San Diego and Riverside counties, precious tourmaline, kunzite, and the rarer garnets have been discovered in connection with the pegmatite dikes there. These products are widely distributed throughout the desert counties. The existence of some of them in commercial quantities and available form is as yet problematic, although their occurrence is known, while important industries are already based on others. The building of railroads in the desert within the last three years and the projection of other lines not yet built indicate for the future a marked increase in the mineral output of this region. The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, generally known in the West as the Santa Fe, has one branch extending from Goffs, on its main line, northward to Ivanpah, a distance of about 50 miles; another from Ludlow southward 7 miles to Stedman; and a third running northward from Kramer to the mining camps at Randsburg and Johannesburg, a distance of 25 miles. A road has also been built from Ludlow to Bullfrog, Nev., with a branch to the Lila C. borax mines. The Santa Fe is also constructing a road from Wickenberg, Ariz., to Parker, on colorado river and thence to Bengal, Cal., on the main line. This particular work is intended to correct the alignment of the transcontinental line, and to reduce grades and shorten the distance between Los Angeles and Chicago. The San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad has completed a road from Las Vegas, Nev., to Bullfrog and Goldfield, Nev. Its main line is in operation from Daggett northeastward across the intervening deserts to Ogden, Utah, and is giving active stimulus to gold, silver, and lead mining. The Southern Pacific has a branch on the colorado Desert, running from Imperial Junction southward

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