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the one which is most highly regarded by prospectors and desert travelers generally—is the Fred T. Perris map of Riverside and San Bernardino counties. With such corrections as it has been found possible to make upon it, this map has been largely followed. In the desert portions of Riverside County especially, for which almost no late data exist, the Perris map is still the best guide. Developments, especially railroad surveys and construction, have given the information necessary for some changes in the northern portion of the area covered by it. A number of the principal roads through the desert are indicated on the map. They are not surveyed, so that only approximate locations are possible, but these at least indicate the usual routes of travel. The descriptions of the springs and watering places have been taken largely from the notes of Mr. Bailey. A large proportion of them have been visited at various times, but descriptions of others have been supplied by other desert travelers. R. H. Chapman, topographer, United States Geological Survey, has supplied notes on a number of wells and springs in the Amargosa district, with which he is familiar; C. A. Pinkham has aided with information concerning the colorado Desert region; C. S. Alverson, of San Diego, has also contributed notes on this area; and many miners and prospectors have supplied information with which it is not possible to credit them individually. On the whole, it is believed that fairly adequate and accurate descriptions are given of most of the better known and more accessible springs and wells, and that many of those which are less well known are included. Of course, numbers of springs exist in the higher mountain ranges of the desert that are known only to prospectors who are familiar with the details of these ranges. These watering places, however, are inaccessible to the casual traveler. The valley wells and springs, or at least those accessible from the most used highways, are the ones on which he must depend. It is hoped that the greater number of these are described in the succeeding pages. The data will be found more complete for the northern than the southern part of the region mapped (Pl. I). PHYSICAL FEATURES. GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE REGION. The arid region lying between colorado river and the Sierra of California shows a marked contrast in nearly all its physical conditions and scenic features with the region lying west of the great range. To the geographer the most striking characteristic of the country east of the base of the Sierra Nevada is the fact that it is a region of

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