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ing; the bottoms should rest on the ground. Both hay and grain should be fed from such a trough, which saves waste and provides a more healthful mode of feeding than eating out of the dirt. Nose bags may be carried for feeding grain during the short stops at noon. For packing trips experienced prospectors select burros on account of their endurance of heat and thirst, their foraging abilities, and the slight amount of care they require. They are slow and too light to carry heavy packs, so that on expeditions where speed is essential, or heavy freight is to be moved and feed is available, horses or mules are to be preferred. TOOLS. Travelers will often find springs choked by debris washed in by rain storms or contaminated by the bodies of desert animals that have fallen in and drowned. It is therefore necessary to provide a pick, shovel, bucket, and rope for cleaning the wells. CLOTHING, BEDDING, ETC. At all times except in midsummer—when the desert should be avoided—the traveler must be provided with clothing suitable for both extreme heat and extreme cold. His route over a part of the journey may extend through heated valleys that lie near sea level, or he may have to camp in the mountains, at elevations of 3,000 to 6,000 feet, where the temperature may fall nearly to the freezing point before morning. For protection during the early morning hours he must therefore have warm, heavy blankets and a heavy overcoat or its equivalent. Many cases of pneumonia and "mountain fever" have been caused by extremes of temperature for which no adequate provision had been made. In winter the temperature in this region may reach 85° or 95° during the day and fall to the freezing point before midnight. The traveler should be provided with a canvas sheet that is long enough to lay under his bedding and fold back over it, as well as to cover his head in case of sand storms. Folding cots and air mattresses are luxuries that may be taken if the financial resources of the party are sufficient to provide such supplies and ample means of transportation. The outer clothing should be of a color that will reflect as much heat as possible—that is, white, gray, or yellow—and the underclothing should be of wool. The hat should have a wide brim and be thick enough to exclude all rays of the sun. The proper headgear is a broad-brimmed gray felt, or, for summer wear, a big opaque helmet of white or khaki color, the bigger the better. The hair should not be cut very short, as it is a natural means of protection. Travelers with their own outfits and a minimum means of transportation will find that they must walk much of the time, for teams with

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