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33. Coleman Springs, Inyo County (E-5).—Coleman was originally known as the Greenland ranch. It is now better known as the borax camp of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, and is the point from which the much advertised "20-mule teams " once hauled borax across the desert to Mohave. The springs are near the northeast end of the sink of Death Valley, at the mouth of Furnace Creek, about 50 miles by wagon road via Boundary Canyon south of Bullfrog. The water, which is abundant, is used to irrigate over 100 acres of alfalfa. It contains some saline matter, but is not unpleasant to taste and is used without injurious effects during the winter season, the only time when work is carried on in Death Valley. The springs are about 200 feet above sea level, and are reached by two roads from Fairbanks Ranch, Nev., one running nearly due west across the Funeral Mountains to Furnace Creek and down its canyon; the other passing south of the Funeral Mountains, by way of Franklin Dry Lake, to the head of Furnace Creek Canyon. The old route from Coleman to Mohave crosses the sink of Death Valley to Bennet's Wells (No. 44) by a road formed by crushing the hummocks of salt that cover the valley floor. From Bennet's Wells this road follows the west side of the valley to the south end of the sink, then turns southwest through Windy Gap to Lone Willow Spring (No. 65) and passes on by way of Granite Wells (No. 96) and across Willard Dry Lake to Mohave. This road is in many respects the best through Death Valley. The chief objection to it is the long drive of over 50 miles to Bennet's Wells from Lone Willow Spring without water. Travelers are cautioned not to attempt to reach Coleman from Saratoga Springs (No. 74) by traveling down the valley of the Amargosa, unless they have a guide who knows just where to find the Confidence Springs (No. 49) in the Amargosa Range near the Narrows. These springs are 7 miles north of the ruins of the old Confidence Mill. Two trails run northward from this mill; the one that branches to the east goes to the old mines and the one to the northwest goes to the springs. As this is the only water for nearly 70 miles on a poor road the trip is a dangerous one, to be avoided under all ordinary conditions. (See "Death Valley routes.") 34. Cow Creek, Inyo County (E-5).—This stream, formed by the flow from constant springs, is in the canyon on the west slope of the Funeral Range, 8 miles northeast of Furnace Creek ranch. It is accessible from Death Valley and by trail from the Amargosa Desert by way of Lee's camp. There is an abundance of good water. There are springs known as Cow Springs (No. 47) on the western edge of Owens Valley. 35. Franklin Well, Inyo County (E-6).—A well was dug in 1852 by a Mr. Franklin near the north edge of Franklin Dry Lake, at the

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