page 41

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about 20 miles by road from Saratoga Springs. To find the ranch from Saratoga Springs one may either travel eastward past the foot of the Black Mountains, and then northeastward through a pass in the lower ridge ahead, passing along the south edge of the sand dunes, or may take the road around the southern end of this lower ridge. Travel is difficult for 1 1/2 miles through the sand dunes and across the pass, but the route is shorter than that to the south around the ridge. From the east side of the divide the road bears sharply northeastward to the mouth of Amargosa Canyon, which can be seen from In distance. When the mouth of the canyon is reached water can be had from the river Stock will drink it, but it is strongly alkaline. The road then runs up the canyon for about 9 miles, passing under two trestle bridges of the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, 2 or 3 miles north of Sperry station, then crosses the track and turns eastward to the ranch, about 5 miles above Sperry. The road thence keeps a straight course northward up Willow Creek, from which the ranch derives its water supply. The springs that furnish this water rise in Tertiary rocks, which outcrop around the ranch to a height of 500 to 600 feet. Good hay can be obtained here, the first to be had after leaving Daggett, 110 miles south. Willow Creek furnishes sufficient water to irrigate about 100 acres of land. This ranch is one of the real oases of the desert, and travelers appreciate the cool water, the supply of alfalfa, and the shade of the fig trees. Resting Springs are about 6 miles northeast of this ranch and Tecopa is about 7 miles east. The old emigrant road from Salt Lake passed here on its way south by way of Soda Lake and Salt Spring ( No. 75) to Cajon Pass. J. C. Fremont passed this spot April 29, 1844, on his way from Tomaso Springs (No. 103) to Resting Springs. He says of it: "The ravine [Amargosa Canyon] opened into a valley [Willow Creek], where there were springs of excellent water." 53. Tule Spring, Inyo County (G-7).—This spring is about 3 miles northeast of Tecopa along the roadside on the north slope of the rise near Dry Lake, between Tecopa and Manse. It has been roofed over to protect the water from cattle. The supply is not large, but the water is of fair quality. From 1 to 2 barrels at a time may be dipped from the springs. 54. Tecopa Well, Inyo County (G-7).—Tecopa is an old lead-mining camp at the head of Willow Creek, on the north side of the Kingston Mountains. When silver mining was active this was a large camp, with a lead smelter and many adobe houses. In the fall of 1908 mining was resumed and the locality is again a center of activity. The place is supplied with a well which stands by the

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