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per's camp 4 miles." Arrows on the signboard indicate the roads. At the south camp water has been developed by tunneling into the granite. The supply is about 4 miner's inches and is excellent in quality. The north camp is in Arrastre Gulch, where there is a large supply bubbling up from beneath limestones. Arrastre Gulch is the main canyon opening onto the desert at the east end, almost due west of the siding at Riggs, on the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad. 103. Tomaso Springs, San Bernardino County (I-7).—This group of springs lies at the northwest end of the Soda Lake Mountains, about 10 miles northeast of Bitter Spring (No. 136), on the old emigrant road to Salt Lake. Their permanency is indicated by the fact that J. C. Fremont mentions them in his journal. He camped here on his homeward journey from California April 25, 1844, and reported that he found the springs "dug out by the Indians or travelers" and "the waters cool and refreshing." The site of the springs as well marked by camp debris, and the water is good. 104. Silver Lake, San Bernardino County (I-8).—This town, on the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, is 40 or 50 miles north of Ludlow, on the Santa Fe Railway. It is the supply point for the Crackerjack, Chisholm, Harper, and other mining districts to the east and west. Stages and automobiles run to Crackerjack. Silver Lake has post-office, express, and telegraph offices. The railroad company pumps water from a well about 200 feet deep and pipes it through the, town. The water is slightly brackish, but is used freely by everyone. The lake from which the town takes its name is about one-fourth of a mile to the west. It is a shallow, intermittent body of water, formed in a bowl in the desert by the overflow of Mohave river during seasons of unusually high water. Shallow wells sunk near the edge of this lake give an abundant supply of brackish water. 105. Williams Well, San Bernardino County (I-8).—There is a well at the edge of Silurian Dry Lake, west of the Riggs mine and well, on the road that leads from Daggett and Soda Lake northward to Death Valley and northeastward to points in Nevada by way of the Kingston Mountains. From this point it is about 25 miles by road southward to Government Well, at Soda Lake (No. 139), and about 20 miles southwestward to Tomaso Springs. Miners here and at Riggs can give information about trails and conditions of water supply farther north. 106. Biggs Well, San Bernardino County (I-8).—There is an excellent well at the Riggs gold mine, 2 miles east of Riggs station, on the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, and near the east end of Silurian Mountain, a small range lying between the Avawatz and the Shadow mountains. The mine has been in operation for some time

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