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230. Palen Wells, Riverside County (O-10).—There are two old wells, 14 feet deep, at the southwest edge of Palen Dry Lake, a few miles east of the Lightfoot well. The water is brackish but potable. In 1905 it was reported that Mr. H. R. Adams drilled a new well near the old ones. 231. Packard Well, Riverside County (O-11).—The Packard Well is about 21 miles northeast of the Lightfoot Well, in the Palen Mountains. It is near the bottom of a small arroyo and is surrounded by mesquite trees. The well is not covered, so that the water is often contaminated by the bodies of desert animals. A ridge of limestone south of the well serves as a landmark. 232. Brown's Well, Riverside County (O-11).—This is a drilled well, 300 feet deep, near the junction of the roads from Mecca and from Danby Lake to Ehrenberg, Ariz. Its location is plainly determinable from the road, as there are two adobe buildings and a corral near it. It is owned by Floyd Brown, who lives there. No charge is made for water. 234. Indian Well, Riverside County (P-7).—This well is situated among the sand hills about 6 miles west of Indio, at an elevation of 97 feet (U. S. Geological Survey). It is on the road along the southwest side of the Coachella Valley, connecting Palm Springs with the settlements about Indio, and is just north of a rough spur of the Santa Rosa Range that extends northwestward for some miles into the desert. The well is 30 or 40 feet deep and is an open shaft in which a pump has been placed. 235. Indio, Riverside County (P-7).—Indio (15 feet below sea level), the end of a division on the Southern Pacific Railroad, is well known as a health resort and as the shipping point for a thriving agricultural district. The railroad company has wells here and a pumping plant for supplying the settlement and the road. In this vicinity there are also many other pumping plants that supply water of the finest quality in considerable volume for irrigation and other purposes. 236. Coachella pumping plant, Riverside County (P-7).—The Southern Pacific Railroad Company has installed a pumping plant at Coachella station, which is between Indio and Mecca. The water comes from the deep gravels that underlie the Coachella Valley. Throughout this valley from Indio to Mecca there has been rapid development since 1900 by the utilization of underground waters. There are now several hundred wells bored, most of them yielding artesian water of the finest quality. Their use is rapidly transforming this part of the desert into a rich agricultural district. 237. Toro Springs, Riverside County (P-7).—This group of springs and the one next to be described are two among a number of ciénagas in which the artesian waters under this part of the desert rise to the

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