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surface. Indian settlements are grouped about these watering places, which were formerly of much importance, but are now less valuable because of the numerous artesian wells in the vicinity. Toro is about 9 miles south of Indio, at 111 feet below sea level, on the old wagon road that follows the western edge of the colorado Desert. 238. Alamo Bonito Springs, Riverside County (P-7).—These springs, which are similar to those at Toro, just described, are about 5 miles southwest of Mecca, at 186 feet below sea level (U. S. Geological Survey). The name is Spanish, and signifies " good poplar." Cottonwood trees are abundant in this vicinity. 239. Agua Dulce, Riverside County (P-8).—This is a cluster of strong springs of "sweet water," as the Spanish name indicates, on the west side of the colorado Desert, about 7 miles south of Mecca, on the road from Mecca to Seventeen Palms Springs (No. 254). They lie 183 feet below sea level (U. S. Geological Survey). The springs are due to the up-welling of artesian waters that are imperfectly confined by the clay strata underlying this part of the colorado Desert. There are a number of springs in the group, and several Indian habitations are scattered around them. The flow is constant, so that water may be obtained here at any time. Originally they were of much importance, but the settlement of this particular region and the boring of artesian wells in the vicinity have lessened the value of the natural springs. 240. Mecca, Riverside County (P-8).—Two artesian wells bored at Mecca station by the Southern Pacific Railroad Company were among the first successful wells in the Coachella Valley. They have a strong flow, and besides furnishing a supply for the locomotives and tank cars of the Southern Pacific system, are utilized by some of the settlers in the village. 241. Shaver Well, Riverside County (P-8).—This well is about 12 miles northeast of Mecca, on the road to Dale. It is at the upper end of a box canyon, within sight of the road, and is easily found. It is about 30 feet deep, well timbered and protected. There is a rope, bucket, and pulley, so that it is easy to get the water, which is of superior quality. The well is surrounded by mesquite shrubs and palo verde. Three miles southwest of Shaver Well, in a canyon that opens to the south, over a ridge, half a mile south of the county road, is water surrounded by a few burnt palms, and about 2 miles farther to the southeast, up another canyon in a little side glen, is a beautiful clump of palms with a spring of pure water beneath them. 242. Dos Palmas, Riverside County (P-8).—Dos Palmas is a well-known stopping place on the old San Bernardino and Yuma road, about 6 miles east of new Salton station, on the Southern Pacific, Railroad, near the clearly defined old beach line that stands 40 feet above sea level in the colorado Desert. The position of the springs

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