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30 Mr. SWING. But all of it taken together is not in excess of what would be consumed locally in the Yuma Valley and in the Imperial Valley and the cities and in agriculture and in lifting the water up on the mesa?Doctor MEAD. That is correct.Mr. ARENTZ. How many horsepower would you use if the Santa Fe and the Salt Lake and the Los Angeles were electrified ?Doctor MEAD. I do not think there is enough power here to be spared for them.Mr. ARENTZ. I just wanted to bring that out, because that is a big feature. They would use all the power they could get to electrify them to carry them over the pass.Doctor MEAD. Whether we build the all-American canal, or whether we use the existing canal, there is going to be a large requirement for pumping water onto land above any gravity canal. Take that triangular tract of land, if you turn to the map there, the light-colored part known as East Mesa, that is probably the finest land in the Imperial Valley because it is the best drained, and it is especially suited for fruit growing.Mr. LEATHERWOOD. I take it you have in mind pumping water onto the higher levels with this cheap power at 3 mills per kilowatt.Doctor MEAD, Yes. I think if we build that canal that power will probably be generated at that drop out of the all-American canal.Mr. LEATHERWOOD. Is the Government furnishing water to any of the water users on any project now at such a rate as that?Doctor MEAD. DO you mean power?Mr. LEATHERWOOD. Yes.Doctor MEAD. I am unable to say. We are, I think, at Minidoka.Mr. LEATHERWOOD. The thought came to me that the Government now at many of its dams is generating power.Doctor MEAD. Yes, sir.Mr. LEATHERWOOD. Do the water users of any of these projects have any such favorable rate as a 3-mill rate?Doctor MEAD. I think they do at Minnedoka. They might pay a little more, but then the distributing cost comes into it, because there it is distributed to a great many of the farms.Mr. ARENTZ. Taking all the costs into consideration, and using3 mills as a basis, you would have a cost of less than $15 per horsepower per year? Doctor MEAD. Between $15 and $20.Mr. ARENTZ. Getting at it that way, I think we could all understand what 3 mills means, if we put it in terms of dollars per horsepower year.Doctor MEAD. Of course, you have to carry that a long distance. There is tremendous cost for that power line, and there is waste.Mr. DAVENPORT. Is there any question as to which is the better method of building that all-American canal, through those big sand hills, whether by underground aqueducts or a canal made through the sand hills?Doctor MEAD. For a short distance it will go under these sand hills and will have to be covered. I think that will have to be a covered aqueduct. The rest of it could be an open canal. There is

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